Home > Living and Working Well > Health Protection > Adult vaccinations

Adult vaccinations

Last Modified 25/10/2021 16:57:36 Share this page

Introduction

Note: For information about COVID-19 vaccination coverage please see the Blackpool Coronavirus Weekly Summary.

The overall aim of the routine immunisation schedule is to provide protection against the following vaccine-preventable infections1:

    • diphtheria
    • tetanus
    • pertussis (whooping cough)
    • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
    • polio
    • meningococcal serogroup C disease (MenC)
    • measles
    • mumps
    • rubella
    • pneumococcal disease (certain serotypes)
    • human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 (also 6 and 11)
    • rotavirus
    • influenza
    • shingles

Childhood vaccinations have been designed to provide early protection against infections that are most dangerous for the very young. Further vaccinations are offered at other points throughout life to provide protection against infections before eligible individuals reach an age when they become at increased risk from certain vaccine-preventable diseases.

Figure 1 shows the 2020/2021 complete routine immunisation schedule for children, adults, selective immunisation programmes and additional vaccines for individuals with underlying medical conditions. 

Figure 1: Complete immunisation schedule

 Immunisation Schedule 2020 visit website link in source at bottom of picture for further details

""
Source: PHE, Complete immunisation schedule 2020

Information on immunisation from the 'Green Book' recommends that five doses of diphtheria, tetanus and polio vaccines ensure long-term protection through adulthood. Selective vaccines against diseases including measles, mumps and rubella should be offered to young adults who have not received routine childhood immunisations. In addition, MenC should be considered in those under 25 years who are unvaccinated and for younger cohorts where the routine adolescent dose has been missed. Other vaccinations should be considered for any adult with underlying medical conditions and those at higher risk because of their lifestyle. These vaccinations include Hib, MenB, MenC, MenACWY, influenza, pneumococcal and hepatitis B. Older adults (65 years or older) should be routinely offered a single dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, if they have not previously received it. Annual influenza vaccination should also be offered. Adults aged 70 years should also be offered shingles vaccine. People of any age who fall into certain risk groups may be offered vaccines to protect them from infectious diseases. The risk might be because of a medical condition, treatment, occupation or pregnancy.

Information on childhood immunisations can be found at Childhood immunisations (0-4 years) and Childhood immunisations (5 years and over). Further information on infectious diseases and other noncommunicable health threats is available in the Health Protection section.

Facts, figures and trends

Data published by the Public Health Outcomes Framework shows that in Blackpool:

    • The number of adults aged 65 and over who received the seasonal flu vaccination in 2019/20 was 24,906 (70.0%)

    • The number of 'at risk' individuals who received the seasonal flu vaccination in 2019/20 was 11,222 (44.5%)

    • The number of adults aged 65 and over who received PPV in 2019/20 was 20,186 (71.4%)

    • The number of adults turning 71 between 1st April 2018 and 31st March 2019 who were vaccinated for Shingles by the end of June 2019 was 10202.

Figure 2: Percent of adults immunised: 2018/19, Blackpool compared to England and the North West3

In 2018 to 2019 Blackpool had higher coverage levels than the national average for Shingles and Pneumococcal vaccination and slightly lower levels for flu
 Source: Public Health Outcomes Framework

 Figure 3: Trend in percent of adults immunised, Blackpool compared to England and the North West2

""
Source: Public Health Outcomes Framework

In Blackpool the proportion of adults vaccinated against flu, pneumococcal disease and shingles has followed the national trend over the last few years (Figure 3) though is consistently lower than the North West average for all but pneumococcal disease. Flu vaccine uptake rates for those aged 65+ years in Blackpool have been close to the WHO target of 75% for a number of years, but have begun to fall slightly in the last couple of years to 2019/20. Take-up rates for other at risk groups have been persistently lower and are also falling.  11,222 (44.5%) of 'at risk' individuals were vaccinated in Blackpool in 2019/20 (Figure 4) which is slightly below the average for English local authorities, though 39.6% of pregnant women were given the flu vaccine4 compared with 43.7% nationally.

Figure 4: Proportion of 'at risk' individuals immunised against flu, 2019/20 - Blackpool compared to upper tier local authorities in England

At Risk Flu coverage by LA 1920
Source: Public Health Outcomes Framework

Frontline health care workers (HCW) involved in direct patient care have for some time been encouraged to receive the seasonal influenza vaccination. The 2021/22 programme guidance now states that "all frontline health and social care workers are expected to have influenza vaccination to protect those they care for"5.

Nationally 74.3% of all frontline HCWs were reported to have received the 2019/20 seasonal influenza vaccine. Across Blackpool 4,011 (84.2%) HCWs involved in direct patient care received the flu vaccination in 2019/20. Figure 5 shows vaccination uptake by HCW group.

Figure 5: Proportion of health care workers (HCW) immunised against flu, 2019/20 - Blackpool compared to England

Blackpool was higher than national average across all Healthcare Worker vaccination groups for 2019 to 2020 period
Source: PHE, Seasonal influenza vaccine uptake amongst frontline healthcare workers in England, Winter season 2019 to 2020

At risk groups

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic the flu vaccination programme was expanded for 2020/2021, and has been revised again for 2021 to 2022 in anticipation of a potentially larger flu season.  Current national policy advises that seasonally flu vaccine should be offered to:

      • all children aged 2 to 15 (but not 16 years or older) on 31st August 2021
      • those aged 6 month to under 50 in clinical risk groups
      • pregnant women
      • those aged 50 years or over
      • those in long-stay residental care homes
      • carers
      • close contacts of immunocompromised individuals
      • frontline health and social care staff

At risk groups who should also receive influenza vaccine include individuals with:

      • Diabetes
      • Chronic respiratory disease
      • Chronic heart disease
      • Chronic kidney disease
      • Chronic liver disease
      • Chronic neurological disease
      • Individuals who are immunosuppressed 

National and local guidance

'The Green Book' has the latest information on vaccines and vaccination procedures, for vaccine preventable infectious diseases in the UK

The PHE Annual Flu Plan sets out a coordinated and evidence-based approach to planning for, and responding to, the demands of influenza across England.

Recommendations

Practices should aim to deliver the nationally expected threshold of 75% for both over 65 years and under 65 years at risk. Adults with certain pre-conditions are recommended by the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation and the Department of Health (DH) to get the adult influenza immunisation to protect against illness.

 


[1]PHE, Immunisation against infectious disease, the 'Green Book'

[2]The Shingles vaccination programme revised its eligibility in April 2017 so that adults become eligible on their 70th birthday and remain eligible until their 80th birthday.  PHE has revised its reporting to measure coverage in the first year of eligibility of the programme. This measure is not comparable to previous years' data and is presented in trend data (Figure 3) with this caveat.

[3] PHE Shingles data for 2019/20 not published at time of production - 2018/19 selected for comparisons.

[4] PHE, Seasonal influenza vaccine uptake amongst GP Patients in England, 1 September 2019 to 31 January 2020

[5] Department of Health and Social Care, National Flu Immunisation Programme 2021 to 2022 letter.