Home > Blackpool Profile > Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy

Last Modified 06/04/2018 14:48:30 Share this page

Introduction

Life expectancy is one of the key indicators of health in a population. Life expectancy at birth is defined as the average number of years that a newborn is expected to live if current mortality rates continue to apply. Life expectancy for men in Blackpool is 74.2 years and for women is 79.5 (2014-16). Blackpool has the lowest life expectancies for both men and women of all upper tier local authorities. There are considerable differences in life expectancy within Blackpool. Men in the least deprived areas of the town can expect to live 13 years longer than men in the most deprived areas. Similarly, for women this difference is 7 years. Not only do people in Blackpool live shorter lives, but also spend a smaller proportion of their lifespan in good health and without disability (Figures 4 and 5).

Blackpool faces major health challenges. Over the last decade there has been a slight improvement in life expectancy; however, the gap between Blackpool and the rest of England and Wales continues to grow (Figure 1 and 2).

Men in Blackpool have the lowest life expectancy from birth in England and Wales. Blackpool's life expectancy is 5.3 years below England and 4.0 years below the North West in Males. Female life expectancy is 3.6 years below England & Wales and 2.2 years below the North West female life expectancy from birth (2014-16).

Figure 1 - Life Expectancy at Birth (1991-93 to 2014-16

Source: Office for National Statistics (ONS), Life expectancy at birth (years)

Figure 2: Life expectancy at birth (1991-93 to 2013-16

 MALESFEMALES
 EnglandNorth WestBlackpoolEnglandNorth WestBlackpool
1991-93 73.6 72.4 71.6 79.1 77.9 78.3
1992-94 73.9 72.7 71.5 79.3 78.1 78.6
1993-95 74.1 72.8 71.0 79.4 78.3 78.0
1994-96 74.3 73.1 71.5 79.6 78.5 77.7
1995-97 74.5 73.2 71.6 79.6 78.5 77.3
1996-98 74.7 73.4 72.1 79.8 78.5 77.4
1997-99 75.0 73.6 72.2 79.9 78.6 77.9
1998-00 75.3 73.9 72.2 80.1 78.9 78.2
1999-01 75.6 74.2 72.0 80.3 79.1 78.4
2000-02 75.9 74.6 71.7 80.6 79.4 78.4
2001-03 76.1 74.8 72.0 80.7 79.4 78.4
2002-04 76.4 75.1 72.8 80.8 79.7 78.4
2003-05 76.8 75.4 73.2 81.1 79.9 78.8
2004-06 77.2 75.7 73.3 81.5 80.3 78.7
2005-07 77.5 76.0 73.2 81.7 80.5 79.0
2006-08 77.8 76.3 73.5 82.0 80.6 78.8
2007-09 78.1 76.6 73.7 82.2 80.8 79.4
2008-10 78.5 77.0 73.6 82.5 81.1 79.4
2009-11 78.8 77.4 73.8 82.8 81.5 80.0
2010-12 79.1 77.7 74.0 82.9 81.7 80.0
2011-13 79.3 78.0 74.3 83.0 81.8 80.1
2012-14 79.4 78.1 74.7 83.1 81.9 79.9
2013-15 79.5 78.1 74.3 83.1 81.8 79.4
2014-16 79.5 78.2 74.2 83.1 81.7 79.5
Source: Office for National Statistics, Life expectancy at birth (years)

Variation in Life Expectancy within Blackpool

There is geographical variation within Blackpool (Figure 3 and 4) with male life expectancy ranging from 65.8 years in Bloomfield, to 78.8 years in Stanley - a difference of 13 years. Female life expectancy ranges from 76.8 years in Waterloo to 83.8 years in Stanley.

Figure 3 - Male Life expectancy by ward Blackpool (2011- 2015)

Male LE by ward 201115
Source: PHE Local Health

Figure 4 - Female Life expectancy by ward Blackpool (2011- 2015)

Female LE by ward 201115
Source: PHE Local Health

Healthy Life Expectancy

Whereas life expectancy (LE) is an estimate of how many years a person might be expected to live, healthy life expectancy (HLE) is an estimate of how many years they might live in 'good' health. The HLE estimate was calculated using self-reported prevalence of 'Good' general health collected in the Annual Population Survey. Comparisons of HLE between England and Blackpool show a greater difference than for LE alone.

From this it can be observed that residents of Blackpool live shorter lives than the national average, and furthermore spend a smaller proportion of their shorter lifespan healthy and disability-free (Figures 5 and 6).

Figure 5 - Male Life expectancy and Healthy Life Expectancy (2013 - 2015)

Source: ONS, Healthy Life Expectancy

Figure 6 - Female Life expectancy and Disability-Free Life Expectancy (2013 - 2015)

Source: ONS, Healthly Life Expectancy

Inequalities also exist within Blackpool for healthy life expectancy and disability free life expectancy. It is estimated that in Blackpool's most affluent ward (Norbreck), man might live in 'good' health until the age of 63.3, compared to just 47.1 in the most deprived ward (Bloomfield) (Figure 7).  Variation in healthy life expectancy also exists in females, with females in Bloomfield ward living on average to 51.2 in 'good' health compared to 63.8 in Stanley ward (Figure 8).  There is also variation in the disease groups affecting more deprived areas of Blackpool, compared to England as a whole.

Figure 7 - Male Life Expectancy and Healthy Life Expectancy at Birth - Blackpool wards (2009-2013)

Source: ONS, Healthly Life Expectancy

Figure 8 - Female Life Expectancy and Healthy Life Expectancy at Birth - Blackpool wards (2009-2013)

Source: ONS, Healthly Life Expectancy

Understanding variations in Life Expectancy

Figure 9 shows the causes of mortality that contribute to the life expectancy gap between the 20% most deprived communities in Blackpool and the 20% least deprived communities in Blackpool, by cause of death for the period 2012-2014. Deaths in younger people, especially in babies, contribute to a larger proportion of the gap, as more years of life are lost. The largest difference in life expectancy between the most and least deprived communities for males are deaths from external causes, that is deaths from injuries, poisonings and suicide which account for 29%. For females it is respiratory diseases (21%); this includes flu, pneumonia and chronic obstructive airways disease. Further analysis highlights that the cause with the largest proportional contribution to the life expectancy gap between the most and least deprived communities are injuries and poisoning for men (exc. suicide), accounting for a difference of 1.8 years of life expectancy and for females chronic obstructive airways disease accounting for 0.96 years difference in life expectancy. Circulatory disease mortality is also high in both genders, contributing 22% in males and 15% in females to the life expectancy gap. Circulatory diseases in this measure comprises of coronary heart disease, stroke and other circulatory disease. The disease which contributes the most in the circulatory section of life expectancy gap for both genders is coronary heart disease.

The third most predominant disease contributing to the life expectancy gap is mortality from digestive diseases. This includes alcohol-related conditions such as chronic liver disease and cirrhosis and contributes 18% in males and females to the gap of life expectancy.

Reduced life expectancy in Blackpool is attributed to a variety of different conditions that in combination have a considerable impact upon the health and longevity of the population.

Figure 9 - Scarf Chart showing the breakdown of the life expectancy gap between the most deprived quintile in Blackpool and the least deprived quintile in Blackpool, by cause of death, 2012-2014

Scarf chart 2012-14 Bl dep areas
Source: Public Health England, The Segment Tool, May 2016

Figure 10 shows the breakdown of the life expectancy gap between Blackpool as a whole and England as a whole, by cause of death for the period 2012-2014. Mortality from circulatory disease (23.6%) and external causes (23.6%) in males in Blackpool as a whole compared to England as a whole are the major contributors to the life expectancy gap. The second largest contributor to the gap in life expectancy for males is mortality from digestive diseases which contributes 15.9% of the life expectancy gap. Mortality from respiratory disease is another large contributor to the life expectancy gap, a total of 13.1% for males and 21.5% for females. Chronic obstructive airways disease is a major contributor to the life expectancy gap in females accounting for a difference of 0.4 years in life expectancy.

The key causes of shorter life expectancy in Blackpool are deaths from external causes (especially in males), cardio-vascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease (especially chronic obstructive airways disease in females), diseases of the digestive system and cancer. Deaths in younger people contribute to a larger proportion of the gap, as more years of life are lost.

Figure 10 - Scarf Chart showing the breakdown of the life expectancy gap between Blackpool as a whole and England as a whole, by cause of death, 2012-2014

Scarf chart 2012-14 Bl & Eng
Source: Public Health England, The Segment Tool, May 2016

The Slope Index of Inequality in life expectancy is an indicator that measures health inequalities within a local area. The measure compares life expectancies between geographic subareas that have been ranked by socioeconomic deprivation. Figures 11 and 12 illustrate the change that has occurred over time in the Slope Index of Inequality in both males and females. Life expectancy has marginally increased overall, but this benefit has been seen in the more affluent communities within Blackpool. For further information regarding the Slope Index of Inequality please see:

Guide to the Slope Index of Inequality

Figure 11 - Blackpool - Life Expectancy at Birth by Deprivation Deciles - Males - Slope Analysis

Source: PHE, Life expectancy at birth by deprivation decile, 2002-04 to 2012-14

Figure 12 - Blackpool - Life Expectancy at Birth by Deprivation Deciles - Females - Slope Analysis

Source: PHE, Life expectancy at birth by deprivation decile, 2002-04 to 2012-14